Wickramasekara, P. and Ruhunage, L. K. (2018). Good practices and provisions in multilateral and bilateral labour contracts and declarations of intent by the International Labour Organization. 92P. Accessible: www.researchgate.net/publication/330933589_Research_report_on_good_practices_and_provisions_in_multilateral_and_bilateral_labour_agreements_and_memoranda_of_understanding ILO/IOM/OSCE (2007). Manual for defining effective policies for labour migration in countries of origin and destination, International Labour Organization, International Organization for Migration, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. 248P. Accessible: www.osce.org/secretariat/19242 BLAs can be a tool for better management of labour immigration in a triple-benefit scenario: benefits for both countries of origin and destination and for migrant workers themselves. In addition, it may be a way for the sending country to ensure that migrant workers are employed and to provide appropriate employment schemes, in addition to ensuring that they fall under social protection (ILo/IOM/OSCE, 2007).
Panhuys, C. et al. (2017). Migrants` access to social protection under bilateral employment contracts: review of 120 countries and nine bilateral agreements, ESS – Working Paper N. 57, International Labour Organization. Accessible: www.social-protection.org/gimi/gess/RessourcePDF.action?ressource.ressourceId=54405 ILO (2019). Bilateral agreements and regional cooperation. Accessible: www.ilo.org/asia/areas/labour-migration/WCMS_226300/lang–en/index.htm OECD countries alone have set up more than 170 BLARs (ILO/ICAO/OSCE, 2007). In addition, according to the ILO, the Philippines, with a total of 13 (ILO, 2019), is the country of origin with the most BLAs.
An example of an agreement that contains specific social protection provisions is the Agricultural Workers Program of Canada (SAWP) with Mexico. This BLA specifically provides temporary workers in the agricultural sector with partial social protection that guarantees access to social security and health care (Panhuys et al., 2017). Bilateral employment contracts (BLA) and Declarations of Intent (MOU) have become popular instruments for protecting migrant workers to address the challenges of social protection accessibility (Wickramasekara, 2015).