Why Do Peace Agreements Fail

By 15 abril, 2021Sin categoría

«Successful peace agreements are rooted in leaders who live up to their commitments.» Base of any agreement 1. Signing an agreement and the promise to respect peace and renounce any direct or indirect action or to help others that lead to a breakdown of peace or the spirit of peace 2. Agreement on a timetable of rules and sanctions in case of infringement and the ability to monitor and enforce the rules at both local and international level, if necessary, the 3rd agreement, not to apply sanctions, undercover agents, etc., to impose internal changes4. Convention on respect for international instruments relating to human rights, humanitarian principles and the rule of international law 5. Decision on a principle of compromise and a detailed method to deal with potential threats to peace or security 6. The attempt to understand the position of the other party (this is perhaps the most difficult thing to achieve) spoilers are defined as «leaders and parties who believe that the peace that arises from negotiation threatens their power (…) and use violence to undermine attempts to reach them» (Mac Ginty quotes Stedman, 2008). The consequences of the security dilemma in a peace process therefore create spoilers and limit the prospects for peaceful coexistence by jeopardizing negotiation talks (Stedman, 1997) In both cases, violence has led to the failure of the implementation of peace agreements (Stedman, 1997). Although the reasons for the deterioration were motivated by different means, the actions taken by spoilers and the role of facilitators in Rwanda and Sierra Leone were similar. In both cases, they are the most threatening spoilers for peace and security guarantees (Stedman, 1997). Following the attempt in March 1991 to create a ceasefire called the «N`sele Agreement», the Arusha talks were overseen by the Organization of African Unity with neighbouring Tanzania as the main mediator (UN, 1996). Khadiagala, 2002). In addition, UNAMIR was sent in 1993 to support the implementation of the Arusha Agreement (UN, 1996). Nevertheless, the peace process has met with considerable opposition.

As President of Rwanda, Habyarimana formed an alliance with his Republican Democratic Movement Party (MRND) and the Coalition for the Defense of the Republic (CDR); both sides have become the main obstacles to effective peace talks (Khadiagala, 2002).