Yes, there is a broad consensus in the scientific community, although some deny that climate change is a problem, including politicians in the United States. When negotiating teams come together for international climate talks, there is «less skepticism about science and more disagreement about how to set priorities,» says David Victor, a professor of international relations at the University of California, San Diego. The basic research is as follows: in the context of this debate, important climate agreements have developed in the way they aim to reduce emissions. The Kyoto Protocol only required developed countries to reduce their emissions, while the Paris Agreement recognized that climate change was a common problem and called on all countries to set emission targets. According to an analysis by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a carbon «budget» based on total carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere (relative to the annual rate of emissions) to limit global warming to 1.5°C has been estimated at 2.25 trillion tons of total carbon dioxide emitted since 1870. This figure is a remarkable increase from the number estimated by the Paris Agreement`s initial estimates (totalling about 2 trillion tonnes) to achieve the 1.5°C global warming target, a target that would be achieved in 2020 at zero emission rates in 2017. [Clarification required] In addition, annual carbon emissions in 2017 are estimated at 40 billion tons per year. The revised IPCC budget for this was based on the CMIP5 climate model. Estimation models, which use different base years, also provide other slightly adjusted estimates of a carbon «budget.»  The NDC Partnership was launched at COP22 in Marrakech to improve cooperation, so that countries have access to the technical knowledge and financial support they need to achieve large-scale climate and sustainable development goals. The NDC partnership is led by a steering committee made up of developed, developing and international institutions, and supported by a support unit hosted by the World Resources Institute, based in Washington, DC and Bonn, Germany. The NDC partnership is jointly managed by the governments of Costa Rica and the Netherlands and includes 93 member states, 21 institutional partners and 10 associate members. .